Credit counseling. Most businesses in the debt-relief industry offer free credit counseling services. Certified credit counselors help consumers build an affordable budget and learn how to live with it. Counselors teach them the debt-relief options available and offer advice on which one best suits their situation. This is an overlooked aspect of many debt-relief services. It increases the financial literacy of consumers by leaps and bounds.
To answer the question in a word, no. This company is one of a handful of U.S. debt-relief providers that has spearheaded innovative strategies to achieve freedom from the crippling impact of credit card debt. More to the point this company not only embraces an ethical model of debt-relief, it is helping to establish accredited standards for the rest of the industry. As far as debt-settlement goes I would rank this service well above most other debt-management type programs that essentially work in unison with credit card companies to recover the maximum debt. Credit counseling is debt-collection under the guide of debt-relief and play on consumer's anxieties and mistrust. There is no Rosetta Stone for the language of debt settlement, so until such time I recommend going with a pro service. From my own experience I can say that this company has a dedicated negotiations team who handles every aspect of the settlement process. In my initial consultation, I observed that they follow rather strict underwriting guidelines in approving candidate for their programs. Since this company doesn't collect it's service fee until after a settlement with a creditor has been secured and verified, they will not approve clients with too little/too much income or debts that may pose difficulty in settling (back taxes, mortgages, secured loans, child support owed). What I really like is that National Debt Relief fully discloses any risks attached to debt consolidation and does business with clients in complete transparency and reciprocity. They don't hide the fact that they are for-profit and benefit as your debt amount progressively decreases! There must be hundreds of companies and even more individuals who have branded debt relief programs or self-styled systems of paying of your credit card debt. Even if someone is asking you for $1 upfront for a CD or DVD, that is a clear sign of a scam. This company is not providing some exhaustible product but a committed service and it shows in its rankings/accreditations (BBB/AFCC)!!!

Afterward, a National Debt Relief specialist will contact you to discuss options and require that you provide proof of your debt balance, income, assets and basic necessity expenses. Any proof that you are struggling with financial hardship needs to be provided during the initial financial review to assess whether a debt settlement program is right for you.
Guy who signed me up was professional BUT dealing with the company afterwards was a complete run-around. Transferred 5 times and not given an honest answer. Had to call back and confirm my exit from the program. Then asked personal questions in a resell attempt. Mailing address given to submit cancellation request to is NOT a valid mailing address. Percentage higher than advertised – 23%. Customer service transfers you immediately somewhere else – couldn’t even finish my sentence. Very shady.
Checking your credit report for inaccuracies is an important step in your journey to reduce your debt. Remedy: You are allowed a free credit report from each of the major credit reporting bureaus, Equifax, Experian and TransUnion. Split them up, one every four months. Check them closely for incorrect delinquencies and/or balances that hurt your credit score and could make a difference in your ability to buy a house or car, or obtain more credit.
So I called National debt relief some man by the name of eric was you can say helping me out . Once I was into the phone letting him know my problems he cut me off and told me he knows no one or and him himself couldn’t help me at all . I didn’t even get the chance to even let him know everything that was going on . That was such a waste of time and I’m here so anyone else shouldn’t waste their valuable time on people that don’t care for their customers ! Happy holidays and suggest to keep away from National debt relief especially eric could have gave his last name , but clicked on me before I could have even got it.

Veteran journalist/blogger Tom Jackson has worked for newspapers in Washington D.C., Sacramento, Calif., and Tampa, Fla., racking up state and national awards for writing, editing and design along the way. Tom also has been published in assorted sports magazines, and his work has been included in several annual “Best Sports Stories” collections. Most recently, his blogging for various websites on the 2016 election won a pair of top honors from the Florida Press Club. A University of Florida alumnus, St. Louis Cardinals fan and eager-if-haphazard golfer, Tom splits time between Tampa and Cashiers, N.C., with his wife of 40 years, college-age son, and Spencer, a yappy Shetland sheepdog.


Apprisen shines with a low-fee guarantee (never more than $35 for setup and $35 monthly), service in all 50 states, online chat, a mobile app for account management, and 40 branches in 10 states. Founded in 1955, they claim to be the “oldest nonprofit credit counseling organization in the country” and are accredited by the BBB, NFCC, and COA. Despite their many positives, I would have liked to see more thorough descriptions and FAQs regarding their debt management plan.
But it’s more than a method for paying off bills. The debt snowball is designed to help you change how you behave with money so you never go into debt again. It forces you to stay intentional about paying one bill at a time until you’re debt-free. And it gives you power over your debt. When you pay off that first bill and move on to the next, you’ll see that debt is not the boss of your money. You are. 
Lower interest rates and monthly payments. A debt consolidation loan or debt management program should reduce the amount of interest you pay on your debt, plus get you a monthly payment that is more in line with your income. The stability of knowing that you have an affordable monthly payment that eventually will eliminate your debt can remove a lot of the anxiety associated with the problem.

Find out exactly how the company's program works. The terms "debt management," "debt consolidation," and "debt negotiation" are often used interchangeably, sometimes in an effort to confuse or deceive people and sometimes quite innocently.[6] They do, however, refer to three different options, so regardless of what a program is called, find out what it is. For more information on the differences between these options, check out how to consolidate loans.


My husband and I have always had separate bank account and financially we did what we wanted and never talked to the other about our spending. I feel like I make decent money and I am at my wits end because I get paid and everything goes to bills or to minimum payments. I stopped about 1.5 years ago putting more money on my credit card payments because I needed the money for bills. Today I just calculated my debt to income ratio (putting my husbands debt and income with mine) I was shocked! even after taking our mortgage out oft he equation we owe $40,972. When I was looking at just my credit cards or my car payment it didn’t seem like an awful lot of credit. But now, I feel like the wind is knocked out of me. I am not even 30 years old and I owe almost as much as I may. I feel really really scared. but I am thankful for this article but it is just what I need to motivate me! things are going to change! things NEED to change.
Find out how your personal information will be protected. When you enter a debt management program, you have to share some of your most sensitive financial information with the counseling agency. You'd better make sure they won't sell it to others or disclose the information to anyone except the creditors you've agreed to include in the plan. Get a written privacy policy from them, and ask what safeguards they have in place to protect your information.

The debt consolidation loan interest rate is usually set at the discretion of the lender or creditor and depends on your past payment behavior and credit score. Even if you qualify for a loan with low interest, there’s no guarantee the rate will stay low. But let’s be honest: Your interest rate isn’t the main problem. Your spending habits are the problem.

hi. if they are over 7 yrs old dont worry about them. in addition, some companies will sell the debt to 3rd party collectors to try to collect even will attempt to threaten or scare you to pay. let it go. if it is student loans etc, pay those with a consolidation contract (not loan) with the federal student loan org……Fedloan.org. they will work with you.
Debt settlement: This is what National Debt Relief is best at. National Debt Relief has been doing debt settlements for years and knows the ins and outs of the laws around debt settlements. While debt settlement is a good option for people who are drowning in debt, it does have some downsides, including wrecking your credit score. Be sure to know the risks surrounding debt settlement before you start the process. National Debt Relief has all the information you need to know about debt settlement on its website.
If you have poor credit/no credit, unfortunately you won’t likely be able to qualify for many of these other options. However, there are a number of companies that specialize in helping people exactly like you. These companies are called “Debt Relief” services and are for those with over $7,500 in credit cards, medical bills, taxes, and other unsecured debts and poor/no credit. 

If your credit card interest rates are so high it feels almost impossible to make headway on your balances, it’s worth calling your card issuer to negotiate. Believe it or not, asking for lower interest rates is actually quite commonplace. And if you have a solid history of paying your bills on time, there’s a good possibility of getting a lower interest rate.
Nice to hear from you Jai :) — we invested as well while paying off debt, so it doesn’t need to be an either-or proposition. To answer your question though, it would be way too time-consuming for me to figure out because of the variety of interest rates we had + other variables. (You may want to look at this post though if you want to see a related scenario: https://www.jackiebeck.com/why-you-should-worry-about-student-loan-interest/ ) That said, no one can see the future, but I KNOW that I no longer have all of that debt weighing me down, and I no longer have all that risk hanging out there.
Debt consolidation loans are a well-known, well-advertised option for consumers who struggle with debt. These credit facilities exist for the express purpose of paying off outstanding unsecured debts and do their job quite well. When you take out a debt consolidation loan, your lender immediately pays off your existing creditors and starts billing you for the balance.

thankyou for the imformation it was very helpful and as of today i’m going to my up stairs and get all of my childrens toy’s and different things that are in really fair condition and start selling thing to get out of dept i’ve always been a stay at home mom i’m going to get a part time job and start doubling up on certain depts thankyou we recieved a letter from out morgage company and they told us our house payments went down and i told my husband no you still need to pay the same amount but add more money to the payments
Here it is nine months later I have paid them a tremendous amount of money and of that money they only paid $325 to 2 creditors one of them only one payment of $25 the balance of the money they paid themselves oh and there is a $8.35 monthly fee for the account they hold my money in. They only had two accounts settled but now both lost because they said there was no money to pay them.
Dealing with the IRS can be a very daunting task to take on alone. Fortunately, tax specialists exist to help guide you through the process of eliminating tax debt. By using DebtHelp.com, you will be able to connect with top tax experts in the US and regain control over your taxes, rather than having your taxes control you. Browse our quick guide to tax debt, our large archive of tax articles, and then use our solution finder to contact a tax specialist.
With debt management, you’re also paying for something you can do yourself. Even if you have tarnished credit, you may be able to get a debt consolidation loan yourself and pay off your debt without the aid of a debt management company. You can also try to negotiate lower interest rates and payments with your creditors on your own. But either solution would require more self-control than debt management, since the burden would be completely on you to stop acquiring new debt.
Auto loans: Auto loans are secured debt guaranteed by your vehicle. For 60-month auto loans, the national average interest rate was 4.21% as of July 2018. Rates are low, so early payoff doesn't always make sense. However, it's a bad idea to continually have a car loan, so paying off the debt early and saving your car payment to buy your next car in cash is smart. 
Getting out of debt is a long-term commitment; there’s not an overnight solution. The most important step you can take is to develop a realistic plan and set a time-bound goal for paying down your debts. For example, you plan to pay off your $10,000 in credit card debt in three years by paying $280 toward your debt every month. However, make sure your goal is realistic for your budget. If you can’t afford that $280 per month, then you’ve set yourself up for failure and may need to consider extending your timeline to five years for a more affordable payment. Having your goal planned out and written down can go a long way to helping you successfully get out of debt.

If you are really unable to repay your debts because you have no source of income at the moment or if there is just no realistic way that you could repay them in two to three years the final option is to file for bankruptcy. However, this would tarnish your credit history very seriously. You will be unable to get new credit for at least two or three years after your bankruptcy and when you do it will come with a very high interest rate. You will be required to pay more for your auto insurance and may have a problem renting a house or apartment. The bankruptcy will stay in your credit reports for 10 years and in your personal file for the rest of your life. Many employers now routinely check the files of prospective employees and some may decide to not hire you if they see a bankruptcy in your history.


Bankruptcy. Declaring bankruptcy has serious consequences, including lowering your credit score, but credit counselors and other experts say that in some cases, it may make the most sense. Filing for bankruptcy under Chapter 13 allows people with a steady income to keep property, like a mortgaged house or a car, that they might otherwise lose through the Chapter 7 bankruptcy process. In Chapter 13, the court approves a repayment plan that allows you to pay off your debts over a three to five year period, without surrendering any property. After you have made all the payments under the plan, your debts are discharged. As part of the Chapter 13 process, you will have to pay a lawyer, and you must get credit counseling from a government-approved organization within six months before you file for any bankruptcy relief.
The internet has made it easier than ever to start a business with close to zero up-front costs. Set up shop as a freelance writer, proofreader, or virtual assistant, and offer your services to other companies who want outside help with hiring a permanent employee. You can work as many or as few hours as you want, with some people turning their businesses into six-figure full-time jobs.

The sad fact is that usually only the wealthiest kids are taught good financial practices and habits, so they have advantages throughout their entire working lives. Those of us less fortunate have to figure out (too late – if ever) that creating/establishing multiple streams of income is one of the most certain methods to ensure a better life. Sure, many people think opening a business will make them plenty of money, but the reality is more like plenty of headaches before plenty of money. Many people start a family early in life, and this also can be an obstacle to financial success.


They tell you to do something illegal. A certified credit counselor will never tell you to try and create a new identity to get away from your old debt. Companies that advise people to get new Social Security or Employer Identification Numbers (EINs) are scams! Credit counselors won’t even advise that you run or hide from creditors or collectors; they help you find ways to face your challenges directly.
Freedom Debt Relief charges customers an average of 20 percent of their total enrolled debt. If you owe enroll $20,000 in debt, Freedom Debt Relief could cut your debt in half. Add on the 20 percent average fees and you could save between $5,000 and $6,000 (25-30 percent average savings AFTER fees). So with a $20,000 debt, you end up paying only $14,000 or $15,000 of your original debt.
Credit limitation: Like a balance transfer, a personal debt consolidation loan is usually only a viable solution for consumers who have a good credit score. The higher you score, the lower the interest rate you can qualify for on the loan. APR of 5% is ideal, but anything below 10% may be enough to provide the relief you need. If you can’t qualify for a rate below 10%, look for other options.
Tally will ensure that you never miss a payment or receive late fees again – as long as you pay Tally on time, then Tally will pay down your credit card balances on time each month. Service is currently available in Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, DC, Florida, Illinois, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Texas, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin. The Tally line of credit is required to use the app. Interest rates are between 7.9% and 19.9% per year depending on your credit history (varies based on the Prime Rate). This information is accurate as of November 2018.
Those who are overwhelmed by debt often turn to credit counseling agencies to find help. They offer a variety of services, such as workshops, one-on-one coaching and debt management plans, all with a common objective. "The No. 1 goal is to leave people in a better financial situation," says Julie Kalkowski, executive director of the Financial Hope Collaborative at Creighton University. The Financial Hope Collaborative is a financial education and counseling program for low- to moderate-income families living in Omaha, Nebraska.
so to ease my stress, which ironically is a major component in my disabiiity, after I fill out their financial affidavit, I am assuming I won’t have to worry about them pounding on my door and taking our furniture? My 2013 tax statement Chase bank had sent me a 1099 C for over 20000 – with that when the acct tallied…..he still came out with an insolvency of over 49000 – this all happened rather fast as was not aware my depression also created a bipolar II disorder which is how I accumulated so much debt in such a short time – termed as “manic sprees” – to think I once was a high risk collector and i heard this term at least 2x a day and did not believe……..what is that they say about what goes around? Statute of Limitations with no signed agreement in Fl is 4 yrs..last time I had paid the “creditor” on this one was Nov 2011 – however I see another sitting in collections from Portfolio that says last py was 3/2011 and another from Unifund where lst pymnt was feb 2011 – statute expired…..would I call Transunion?
Ask for help from your friends, relatives, coworkers, and acquaintances. I don’t mean ask people to pay your debts for you. I mean ask for help with transportation, child care, manual labor, tips, recipes, and ideas. Ask to borrow tools. Ask handy people to show you how to do things to save money. Google stuff. Just because you don’t know how to do something now or have never done it before doesn’t mean you can’t do it.
Credit score takes a beating. This definitely will happen with either debt settlement or bankruptcy. Even if you eventually reach a debt settlement with a lender, there will be a note on your credit report for seven years that says you missed payments and settled for less than what was owed. Chapter 7 bankruptcy stays on a credit report for 10 years and Chapter 13 bankruptcy is there for seven years. This will make it difficult to get a loan for a home or car at an affordable rate.
The Financial Consumer Agency of Canada (FCAC)[8] advises Canadians to do their research and find a trustworthy organization and a qualified counsellor. They suggest making sure an agency is in good standing with a provincial or national association. They recommend looking carefully at the agency's advertising to see if it sounds too good to be true. Claims or misrepresentations to look out for can include repaying only a fraction of your debt, quickly fixing your credit score, or claiming to be part of a government program. They also suggest consumers inquire about an agency's services, costs, and counsellor qualifications.[9] The FCAC has also warns Canadians to be careful of companies offering to help them pay off their debt or repair their credit. Things to watch out for include guarantees to solve debt problems and using high interest loans to pay off debt. Some of these companies also claim that they can file a consumer proposal on behalf of a consumer. However, the FCAC points out that only a qualified licensed insolvency trustee can help someone with a consumer proposal or bankruptcy.[10]

The National Foundation for Credit Counseling or the Association of Independent Consumer Credit Counseling Agencies lists affiliated legitimate credit counseling services across the United States. Also, consumers can check with their state's attorney general’s office and the local consumer protection agency to determine if consumers have filed complaints about a credit counseling organization. As another resource, the United States Trustee Program keeps a list of credit counseling agencies approved to provide pre-bankruptcy counseling. Bankruptcy law mandates that anyone filing for bankruptcy must first undergo credit counseling.
While the steps above may seem lengthy and cumbersome, debt management plans exist because some consumers are simply unable to get out of debt on their own. Bruce McClary, vice president of communications for the National Foundation for Credit Counseling (NFCC), said that an array of circumstances can lead to situations where families need outside help. Job loss, chronic overspending, reduction in work hours, loss of income and unexpected major expenses are often the biggest culprits when consumers spiral into debt they cannot control.
Next, your credit counselor will compile your data and ask you to commit to a debt management plan if they believe it’s the best option. If you choose to move forward, you will begin making a single monthly payment to the credit counseling agency who will disburse the funds on your behalf. Your credit counselor may also suggest alternatives to debt management plans if they believe a better option is available.
What Does National Debt Relief Do? National Debt Relief is a leading debt negotiation company with a BBB A+ rating and thousands of positive client reviews. So what does that mean? We negotiate with your creditors to get a reduction of your outstanding credit card balances. We get your creditors to agree to a lump sum payoff amount and they will forgive the rest of your balance. Debt negotiation is one of the most effective choices available to consumers if you qualify. It’s a great choice if you have more debt than you can pay off in a 2 – 3 year time frame or are experiencing a financial hardship that has you falling behind (or just about to be) on your monthly payments.
Nice to hear from you Jai :) — we invested as well while paying off debt, so it doesn’t need to be an either-or proposition. To answer your question though, it would be way too time-consuming for me to figure out because of the variety of interest rates we had + other variables. (You may want to look at this post though if you want to see a related scenario: https://www.jackiebeck.com/why-you-should-worry-about-student-loan-interest/ ) That said, no one can see the future, but I KNOW that I no longer have all of that debt weighing me down, and I no longer have all that risk hanging out there.
Another survey conducted by the Harris Poll on behalf of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) showed that 56% of Americans with debt admitted that it negatively impacted their lives. Twenty-eight percent of the 1,004 American adults surveyed said their debt caused stress about their everyday financial decisions, and 21% said it caused tension with their partner.
Using your home and your equity to secure a consolidation loan can be one of the quickest and safest ways to eliminate high interest debt. By using your home for collateral, you can greatly improve your chances of acquiring a low interest loan, and you also can borrow more than you would be able to through a personal loan. There are important differences to understand between second mortgages, refinances, and home equity loans, so please read our guide, browse our articles, and use our solution finder to receive your quote.

They tell you to do something illegal. A certified credit counselor will never tell you to try and create a new identity to get away from your old debt. Companies that advise people to get new Social Security or Employer Identification Numbers (EINs) are scams! Credit counselors won’t even advise that you run or hide from creditors or collectors; they help you find ways to face your challenges directly.


The first way is to earn some extra cash. If you are in a commission-based job then this means that you need to make more sales, which will probably involve having to work more hours. If you are in a salary job and you are limited in the hours that you can work, then you might need to pick up a second job. When my wife and were toward the end of paying off our consumer debt, I was able to get a second job delivering pizzas which gave us the extra income we needed to hit our deadline of 18 months.
National Debt Relief is a debt settlement service. For a fee, it will negotiate with your creditors to reduce the amount of debt you owe. It’s among the most recognized debt settlement services in the country, with high rankings from the BBB and Trustpilot reviewers. It’s also accredited with top industry associations, including the American Fair Credit Council (AFCC).
My husband & I have a massive credit card debt now, due to us taking my sister’s 4 children in for 6 yrs + having our 2 girls graduating & college. I want to pay back what we owe because it’s the responsible thing to do, would consolidation be the best way for us to go or should we talk to a counsler first? We aren’t late on our payments, but scratching to get by each month after all the payments.
Yep, you read that right. And yes, we even mean stop contributing to your 401(k). Right now, you want all your income to go toward getting out of debt. Once you’re debt-free and have saved three to six months of expenses in an emergency fund, then you can resume your contributions. By then you’ll be on Baby Step 4 and can start putting 15% of your income toward retirement.

This isn't good news for the millions of American consumers who struggle with mounting debts and less-than-perfect credit scores. Since carrying long-term debts increases your chances of missing a payment, running up excessive balances or damaging your credit in either ways, debt consolidation lenders don't have a very big pool of potential applicants at their disposal. Unless you've been fortunate enough to maintain a stellar credit score during your debt struggles, you might have to look elsewhere for help.


Credit counseling is done largely over-the-phone or online, but can be done in-person at a home or office. Counselors conduct 30–40 minute interviews to gather information about your financial situation. They will ask questions about income, expenses, budgets and assets. It is best to have this information documented and available when you begin the process.
Personal loans:Personal loans are for a fixed amount of money from banks, credit unions, and online sources. Average personal loan rates range from 10% to 28%, depending on credit. When rates are very high, early and aggressive debt payoff is important. If rates are reasonable, you may wish to prioritize other money goals before putting extra money toward repaying early. 

Another consideration is whether or not you can become disciplined in spending and creating financial obligations without credit counseling assistance. These counselors can coach you into staying on target with your financial goals. The reason you're considering these services is that you've fallen off a sound financial path. Utilizing the help of a credit counseling agency could help you gain financial stability.
Although there is variation from country to country and even in regions within country, consumer debt is primarily made up of home loans, credit card debt and car loans.[3] Credit counseling includes an array of services to address consumer debt that is not within the debtor's ability to pay, such as education about credi personal finance, budgeting and debt management. In addition to education, a popular credit counseling option is the ‘‘Debt management plan’’ (‘‘DMP’’, known in the United Kingdom as the Individual voluntary arrangement or "IVA"). In order to initiate a DMP, a consumer would authorize the credit counselor to contact each of the consumer’s unsecured creditors and negotiate with each creditor to lower the consumer’s monthly payment amount, to lower the interest rate, and to waive any outstanding late fees. The debt was then ‘‘consolidated’’ into a single payment.[1]
Make sure the company requires complete information from current statements before giving you a quote. The debt counselor will need you to provide all your current credit card and loan statements before they can tell you how much your monthly payments will be or how long it will take to complete the program. Beware of anyone who gives you a quote without thoroughly researching the following first:
There are also specific debt consolidation loans available, marketed to borrowers looking to get a handle on debt. In many cases, however, these debt consolidation loans have high interest rates and other unfavorable terms. If you see a loan product labeled as a debt consolidation loan, research very carefully to determine whether the loan is actually a good deal.
Having said that, the other posters are correct. You can settle debt on your own without the help of a debt settlement company. It does take a lot of time and energy though. That is why some people choose to use a company to do it for them. Due your due diligence and search for reviews of the companies you are interested in and see what others have to say.
When you have a small emergency fund, you won't have to reach for your credit cards when disaster strikes. You can use the saved money and not slide back into debt. Of course, when you use the money in your emergency fund, you may need to pause debt payment to rebuild it again. But at least you won't have gone deeper into debt when trying to climb out of the hole. 
Many have heard of the tremendous benefits of compounding interest regarding investments before. However, when related to debt, compounding interest works against you as interest builds upon growing outstanding balances. This means that the longer you hold higher-interest debt, the harder it is for you to get out of debt. A higher-interest debt will cost you much more over time and should be your highest priority in paying off. Typically, credit card debts and personal or small business loans will have the highest interest rates.

I’ve only been in the program a few weeks. I’m rather disappointed with their csr. At first they treat you like you’re golden and give the impression that they actually care. Once I signed up I tried reaching out to the lady who originally helped me,she completely ignored me and has not replied to any of my emails. It just feels awful being tossed to the side like garbage after initially being treat with attention and support.


Some of them include debt consolidation, foreclosure and mortgage delinquency counseling, and budgeting. Review alternatives to a foreclosure that may be available to you such as mortgage modification. A counselor can sometimes work directly with your creditor or bank to enter into installment plans with them, or they help facilitate a solution with all impacted parties.
The average length of a DMP is 3-5 years, but is shorter for clients who decide to aggressively deal with their debt. Many clients pay down debt faster by using income tax returns, inheritance money or some other unexpected source of income. There is no penalty for paying the debt off early. You can make additional payments while on the plan and pay off your debt faster.
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